APA 7 Citation Style Guide's guidelines for citing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers as personal communication.
However, NorQuest College, in the spirit of reconciliation has developed the following templates.
Please consult with your faculty to determine which format is preferred.
Reference page citation:
|Last name, First initial., Nation/Community. Treaty Territory if applicable. Where they live if applicable. Topic/subject of communication if applicable. personal communication. Month Day, Year.|
Kwandibens, D., Whitesand First Nation. Treaty 20. Lives in Thunder Bay, ON. Oral teaching. personal communication. April 21, 2022.
Paraphrase: Whitesand First Nation has struggled with high levels of addiction and suicide, which Ms. Kwandibens believes has contributed to the lack of indigenous knowledge amongst their community (Kwandibens,2022).
Quote: She further stated that "Indigenous knowledge was being eroded in her community with the lack of cultural teachers in the public school" (Kwandibens, 2022).
Citing Traditional Knowledge or Oral Traditions of Indigenous Peoples
How this information is cited is dependent on if and how the information was recorded. If it has been recorded in a format or manner that can be retrieved, for example, a book, YouTube video, podcast etc., cite it as you would that type or format of the source with an in-text citation and an entry in the reference list.
For Traditional Knowledge or Oral Traditions that are not in a retrievable format, you must provide an in-text citation with as much detail as possible to outline the content and contextualize the origin of the information. You do not need to include a reference entry.
Did you speak to an Indigenous person directly?
If they are not a research participant, then you can cite them as you would personal communication. Include in an in-text citation the person's full name and the specific Indigenous group they belong, location, and additional details that are relevant to them, ending with the words "personal communication" and the date of the communication.
Parenthetical in-text citation: (A.A. Smith, Indigenous group, location, additional details, personal communication, March 31. 2020)
Narrative in-text citation: A.A. Smith shared the importance of blueberry sauce in their community gatherings.... (Indigenous group, location, additional details, personal communication, March 31, 2020)
Did your information gathering occur over a number of dates?
If this is the case you should include a general date or range of dates that reflect when you consulted with the person.
Are you including information from your own experience and/or community?
If you are an Indigenous person and are including information from your own experience or information that has previously not been recorded of your people "describe yourself in the text (e.g., what nation you belong to, where you live) to contextualize the origin of the information you are sharing." (APA, 2020, p.261). You do not need to include a personal communication citation or have a reference list entry.
Credit: The above information was created and shared by the University of British Columbia's Library guide.