APA style was created by the American Psychological Association. It is a set of rules for publications, including research papers.
In APA, you must cite all information you have gathered from sources. This includes information that you have paraphrased, quoted or otherwise used to write your research paper.
Cite your sources in BOTH:
Navigating this Guide:
Video: How to use the APA Guide
Tabs - located above, each tab contains specific information on the various aspects of APA. If you see a triangle in the tab, hover your mouse over the tab and a drop down menu opens. Select one of the options to open that page.
"Citation by Source" - provides formatting structure and examples of the most common sources of information used in writing a research paper.
Citing: The process of acknowledging the sources of your information and ideas.
D O I (doi): Some electronic content, such as online journal articles, is assigned a unique number called a Digital Object Identifier (D O I or doi). Items can be tracked down online using their doi.
In-Text Citation: A brief note at the point where information is used from a source to indicate where the information came from. An in-text citation should always match more detailed information that is available in the Reference List.
Paraphrasing: Involves putting a passage from source material into your own words. Paraphrased material is usually shorter than the original passage, taking a somewhat broader segment of the source and condensing it slightly.
Plagiarism: Taking, using, and passing off as your own, the ideas or words of another.
Quoting: Copying "word for word" originally published text, retaining original spelling and punctuation. Direct quotations generally appear in quotation marks and end with a citation.
Reference: Details about one cited source.
Reference List: Alphabetical list which contains details on ALL the sources cited in a text or essay, and supports your research and/or premise.
Retrieval Date: Used for websites where content is likely to change over time (e.g. Wikis), the retrieval date refers to the date you last visited the website.
Summarizing: Involves putting the main idea(s) into your own words, including only the main point(s). Summaries are significantly shorter than the original and take a broad overview of the source material.