When you write information from a source in your own words, cite the source by adding an in-text citation at the end of the paraphrased portion as follows:
Mother-infant attachment became a leading topic of developmental research following the publication of John Bowlby's studies (Hunt, 1993).
Note: If you refer to the author's name in a sentence you do not have to include the name again as part of your in-text citation, instead include the year of publication following his/her name:
Hunt (1993) noted that mother-infant attachment became a leading topic of developmental research after the publication of John Bowlby's studies.
Homeless individuals commonly come from families who are riddled with problems and marital disharmony, and are alienated from their parents. They have often been physically and even sexually abused, have relocated frequently, and many of them may be asked to leave home or are actually thrown out, or alternatively are placed in group homes or in foster care. They often have no one to care for them and no one knows them intimately.
Rokach, A. (2005). The causes of loneliness in homeless youth. The Journal of Psychology, 139, 469-480. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.
Example: Incorrect Paraphrasing
The homeless come from families with problems. Frequently, they have been physically or sexually abused, or have lived in group homes. Usually no one cares for them or knows them intimately (Rokach, 2005).
Note: In this incorrect example the writing is too similar to the original source. The student only changed or removed a few words and has not phrased the ideas in a new way.
Example: Correct Paraphrasing
Many homeless experience isolation in part due to suffering from abuse or neglect during their childhood (Rokach, 2005).
Note: The example keeps the idea of the original writing but phrases it in a new way.
|Paraphrase citation:||(Laurel & Hardy, 2000)|
|Quote citation:||(Laurel & Hardy, 2000, p. 55)|
|Laurel and Hardy (2000) studied differing forms of comedy before formalizing slapstick comedy as their performance style.|
|Paraphrase citation:||(Microsoft, 2020)|
|Quote citation:||(Microsoft, 2020, para. 8)|
|Narrative citation:||Microsoft (2020), like many large corporations, has a corporate responsibility policy that claims it is committed to giving back to Canadians.|
Corporate Author with a known abbreviation:
If the organization is often referred by an abbreviation, use the following style:
1st Citation: (Centre for Addiction and Mental Health [CAMH], 2019)
Subsequent Citations: (CAMH, 2019)
1st Citation: (Centre for Addiction and Mental Health [CAMH], 2019, para. 8)
Subsequent Citations: (CAMH, 2019, para. 8)
1st Citation: The Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH, 2019) provides mental health services for patients found to be criminally insane and not fit for trial.
Subsequent Citations: CAMH (2019) has responded to the large news coverage of recent patients who have left their care without authorization.
You may run into a situation where a source does not have all the information required for a citation, both reference entry or in-text. This table provides the recommended solution for handling those cases.
|Missing element||Solution||Reference Entry||In-text Citation|
|Nothing - all elements are present||Provide the author, date, title, and source of the work.||Author. (Date). Title. Source.||(Author, year)|
|Author*||Provide the title, date, and source. *If the Author is listed as Anonymous, use that as the Author name.||Title. (Date). Source.||(Title, year)|
|Date||Provide the author, write "n.d." (no date), and then provide the title and source.||Author. (n.d.). Title. Source||(Author, n.d.)|
|Title||Provide the author and date, describe the work in square brackets, and then provide the source.||Author. (Date). [Description of work]. Source||(Author, year)|
|Author and date||Provide the title, write "n.d." (no date), and then provide the source.||Title. (n.d.). Source||(Title, n.d.)|
|Author and title||Describe the work in square brackets, and then provide the date and source.||[Description of work]. (Date). Source.||([Description of work], year)|
|Date and title||Provide the author, write "n.d." (no date), describe the work in square brackets, and then provide the source.||Author. (n.d.). [Description of work]. Source||(Author, n.d.)|
|Author, date, and title||Describe the work in square brackets, write "n.d." (no date) and then provide the source||[Description of work]. (n.d.). Source||([Description of work]. n.d.)|
|Source||Cite as a personal communication or find another work to cite.||No reference list entry||(C.C. Communicator, personal communication, month, day, year)|